Physics knows four forces;
- the first two of these four forces act in the atomic core;
- the first two of these four forces act in the atomic core;
- One of them UNIFIES and holds matter together in the core (e.g. via fusion),
- the other force SEPARATES parts of the atomic core. It produces the radioactivity of e.g. uranium and thorium.
- One of them - gravity force - UNIFIES and holds matter together e.g. it forms stars from huge clouds. It holds together stars, solar systems, binary stars, galaxies, clusters.
- The other force - the electric force - SEPARATES matter of celestial bodies and repulses winds, loops, flares and light years-long jets. The electrically ejected matter is formed to filaments via pinch effect. (see jets of Crab pulsar)
The thesis of this paper is that the Sun works also electrically. The title of this paper "The Electric Sun" emphasizes the newly discovered electric solar functions.
The solar gravity was discovered by Newton more than 3 centuries ago in 1666. The solar electric function is discovered by the great astronomer G.E. Hale in 1913 as the explanation of the magnetic field of the sunspots. However, his "Electric Sun"-model should be rediscovered a century later. It explains the sunspots, but additionally also the solar wind, the corona, the flares and mass eruptions i.e. matter which is ejected by the Sun. www.the-electric-universe.info
The measurements of Ulysses and TRACE are very important that the Sun can emit positive and negative filaments in the same time! The 1057 free solar electrons in the solar plasma cannot make an electric short circuit between the emitting positive active areas and the negative coronal holes - this will be shown below in detail. This was not understood in the last century and made astrophysics to a non-physical collection of ideas.
The other observation is much easier to understand that the already emitted positive and negative filaments do not neutralize each other in space because they are antiparallel electric currents which repulse each other stronger than they attract each other via electrostatic attraction. Electrons of a negative filament do not fly to ions to recombine it in a positive filament in a distance of only 1000km, they fly parallel to each other millions of kilometres and later diverge.
NEGATIVE EMISSION: THE SOLAR WIND
An element that gains electrons becomes negatively charged, while a substance that loses electrons becomes positively charged. The solar wind is a "grey mouse" among the solar mass emissions.
But it is the motor of all solar electric functions e.g. of all ejections and of the magnetic field of the sunspots. The negative solar wind charges the solar core positively.
The solar wind is the result of the asymmetric thermal motion of the electrons in the Sun. An electron would fly in all direction with the same velocity in an isothermal Sun. However, the Sun is colder outwards. A random flight outwards brings an electron in a colder proximity (i.e. its velocity becomes lower). Therefore, the return into the original position is improbable i.e. all electrons drift slowly outwards. Naturally this drift is very small, but it has enormous cross section in the whole Sun. These electrons appear at the photosphere and their mutual electrostatic repulsion emits them. A huge and continual negative current as solar wind flows into the space.
Does the Sun have enough electrons to continually emit them without getting new electrons? The Sun does not lose all of its 1057electrons via solar wind. It loses only about 10 electrons daily. This is not too much even in a long solar life of 1010 years. The Sun will lose at the end 4 x 1051 : 1057 part of its electrons i.e. only 0.0004% of its electrons. The Sun is in fact an irreversible current-source but even for gigayears.
The protons are 43-times slower due to their 1836 times higher mass and mostly remain in the core. Always the quickest electrons are lost for the solar core, this process cools the core but all solar activities mainly have their electric energy from this separation of the electric charges via this so called thermoelement-effect. Other effects amplify this charge separation, for example the neutrinos from the solar core push the electrons outwards, never inwards. Moreover, solar photons push the electrons stronger outwards than inwards.
The result is that the solar surface will be basically negative, the solar core positive. (Eddington 1925).
The surfaced electrons continually explode electrically in the photosphere as the solar wind. It never stops. The emerging electrons have a free space upwards. They are not cumulated. Their very high velocity of typically 750km/s would need 24million Kelvin to be emitted thermally! But the solar surface is only 6000K hot. Therefore, the solar wind can only be an electrostatic continual emission. The electron concentration in the photosphere is constant because the thermoelement-effect only depends on the temperature-difference between core and surface and this is constant 15MK. All electrons which drift into the photosphere will be exploded. The satellites measure a constant wind-velocity of 750km/s in solar minimum. Ulysses shows a sine-curve of the wind-velocity between solar minimum and maximum because one side of the Sun is more negative and the other hemisphere less negative. The rotation of the Sun of 28 days is clearly seen in this sine-curve.
When the Sun is in minimum activity, the whole solar surface is negative and emits the solar wind. The negative photosphere does not attract e.g. thermal electrons, it pushes electrons.
The solar wind mainly contains of electrons and some swept away protons and other light ions. These all have the same 750km/s velocity. Related to the protons, the oxygen ions do not have a 4 times lower velocity according to their 16 times higher mass (as they do in the depth of the Sun in a hot thermal equilibrium). This measurement shows that the ejection of the solar wind is a non-thermal (electric) process in which the velocity of all particles is equal. In thermal processes is the energy of all particles is equal.
Therefore, the solar wind is no plasma! It is a non-thermal (filamentary) body (it is in a fifth state of matter i.e. the electrons fly parallel to the filament-axis and not in zigzag). The wind-filaments are clearly detected by satellites; e.g. Ulysses crosses these wind-filaments. The wind-electrons became visible in the aurora. The observation clearly shows that the filaments of the negative wind excitedly "dance" in the aurora when the positive eruptions of the Sun are frequent.
The Sun is a hot body, and its electrically neutral evaporation was often stated to emit the solar wind thermally. But this mass would fall back onto the Sun via strong solar gravity. Neutral particles can escape the Sun only with a higher velocity than 618km/s.The "solar wind" which would be emitted from the "2MK hot corona" (Parker) had a much higher evaporation-velocity of 220km/s but this is still too low. SOHO showed that the solar wind exists already in the altitude of 7000km i.e. deep below the corona. The wind has here a velocity of only 10 km/s i.e. too low to escape.
The other problems of the Parker wind model are the area, the form and the time of the emission. The wind starts from the UV-black coronal holes but the corona starts from the UV-bright footpoints - these are quite different. The solar wind is filamentary, but neutral hot emissions would be formless clouds. If the corona would evaporate the solar wind, no wind would exist when no corona exists on the Sun. But oppositely, the solar wind is the strongest with its highest velocity of 750km/s when no corona exists on the Sun. And vice versa: When the corona appears in maximum, the velocity of the wind falls immediately, moreover, this velocity falls down to 300km/s during solar maximum. Already a small footpoint clearly lowers the wind-velocity.
THE POSITIVE EMISSIONS: CORONA, FLARE AND CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS
The positive charge of the solar core increases with each electron which leaves the Sun for ever in the solar wind. The positive charge is cumulated. 11-yearly, this positively charged matter appears on the solar surface (as footpoints) not conducted but via mechanical instability (Electric Universe) mechanically elevated as proton bubble. Its concentrated charge overbalances the electrons in the photosphere and emits itself into the space as prominences, positive filaments, corona, flares, mass ejections according to their charge-concentration. The emerging positive charge is higher concentrated if it is originated from solar core-volumes of higher thermal gradient. The flares come from the border of the solar core where this gradient is maximal. This positive matter from the depth already contains ions and no mysterious heating produces these ions. These ions lost "their" electrons via solar wind. These ions produce the filaments and not the filaments produce the ions. The "heating of the corona" will be never found because the corona is not hot - and also not cold. It is not in the fourth but in the fifth state of matter i.e. in a non-thermal state of matter. Similarly to the coronal filaments, due to the pinch-effect, the electrostatic explosion of electrons in a terrestrial storm is the filamentary lightning and not a big bright sphere in which all electrons fly from all electrons.
If the solar core cumulates positive charge, why does it not explode? The answer is: because plasma is not transparent. This will be shown below in detail. The ions in excess emit repulsing photons in all directions. But these photons are dispersed in plasma and they do not arrive at the other ions in excess. However, when positive matter emerges into the photosphere, the photons fly free in the transparent gas and the matter electrostatically explodes. This explosion is the result of the cooling down to recombination-temperature i.e. below 13 000K. These exploding protons ionize matter; low and highly ionized atoms come into existence. This is the footpoint which emits more filaments to different altitudes. The accidentally produced e.g. Fe+2-ions are emitted by the positive footpoint into a prominence or chromospheric net but the e.g. Fe+9 -ions fly in the filament of a corona into the altitude of 15 Mm; Fe+14- ions up to 200 Mm. These footpoints with their filaments are similar to poles of magnets, but they are no magnets. Magnets have never e.g. 3 poles. They are clearly the cause of the filaments - they are much brighter than the filaments. This observation contradicts the existence of a solar dynamo which should produce the filaments in the depth. The footpoints continually explode into the filaments. Oppositely to the solar wind which never stops, the filament-production stops if the whole amount of positive charge is already emitted.
The negative solar areas - the coronal holes - naturally cannot emit positive filaments. Coronal holes also have a weak chromospheric net if any. (Perhaps this observation is still unpublished.)
The motion of matter in a supposed neutral filament was never clear via hypothetical pressure. However, the existing motion is simply caused by electrostatic repulsion. The pinch effect of the moving positive charge forms thin filaments. The filament does not cause somehow the motion but the motion causes the filament. Without electric charge no motion and without motion of charged matter no pinch effect would be possible.
A "magnetic motion" is impossible because the Lorenz force is zero in the direction of the supposed "magnetic tube" of a filament. The solar dynamo was not found by SOHO.
An emitted coronal filament contains the same e.g. Fe+9 -ions from begin at the footpoint up to end of the filament in the photosphere. Along this filament, it contains no follow of ions like:
Fe+1-, Fe+2-, Fe+3-.... Fe+9-ions
as if it would be continually heated up from 6000K to 1 MK!
The high velocity of matter in the filament of e.g. 1500km/s would need 96million Kelvin to be emitted thermally. Naturally this temperature is nowhere on the Sun. Also these positive emissions are of no plasma, they are in the fifth state of matter.
PHOTONS OF THE REPULSION CANNOT FLY IN PLASMA
Why do the core-ions not explode electrically when they lost "their" electrons? Two solar protons repulse each other with a very strong electric force and attract each other with very weak gravity. The repulsion is 10^36 times higher than this attraction in a certain distance. With other words, a perfect electrically neutral star of 1036 gram would have no fixed spherical body if it had only 1 g excess-protons without electrons. The mutual repulsion of the excess-protons would be as strong as the mutual gravity among the protons of this huge mass. The Sun has a mass of 2 x 1033 gram i.e. it needs only 2 x 0,001gram excess-protons to have no defined body anymore. 0.01g protons without electrons would theoretically explode the Sun.
But something is wrong: During a coronal mass ejection the Sun emits up to 10 billion tons of charged matter not only 0.01g. Why did this huge positive charge not explode the Sun before its ejection?
The probable answer is to find in the plasma. Through plasma, the electric forces seemingly cannot act. The photons of these electric forces cannot pervade the solar plasma. Therefore, the Sun contains big negative and much bigger positive charges in its body conserved for gigayears without equalising currents. The solar free electrons could move in the plasma to the ions but the electric field (which could move these free electrons) cannot be formed in the plasma. Well known, the plasma is non-transparent, a hydrogen torch has a shadow in sunlight. But a stable electrostatic field is an electromagnetic wave of a very long wavelength. Therefore, solar electric charges move only mechanically e.g. rotated in a sunspot (GE Hale 1913 and NASA 2001) but not conducted in lack of the electric field. The emerging positive masses do not explode in their course from the core to the photosphere - these ions cannot "see each other" only those in the proximity! Arriving in the transparent photosphere, after an emerging along four years, these positive masses explode in seconds. All ions can suddenly "see each other" also from kilometres and protons in excess have an unimaginable repulsion. However, the protons in excess do not fly in all directions, they form filaments via pinch-effect. The electrostatic explosion is no thermal explosion in which particles fly into a formless cloud.
The pinch effect is stronger than the mutual electrostatic repulsion among these protons.
MAGNETIC FORCE OF INFINITE RADIUS?
Astrophysics of the last century preferred the magnetic force. The magnetic force is also carried by photons which cannot pervade solar plasma, but the magnetic force was no taboo for astrophysicists.
The electric force has infinite radius. A positive Sun would repulse a proton in the empty space without limit. But does the magnetic force do the same? An infinite long dipole repulses an infinite long dipole infinitely. And how does the Sun (of a dipole of 1.4 million km) function?
The magnetic force originates by dipoles which attract or repulse other magnetic dipoles. But the magnetic force is unable to move a cloud in a long way in the empty space even if this cloud is a dipole. In free space, one dipole cannot repulse another dipole far away because the non-fixed dipole (the cloud) will rotate by 180° in a certain distance and be attracted to the fixed dipole.
A dipole can not attract another dipole from fare away, because the mutual attractions and repulsions between the poles are the same. Therefore, only an electrically charged celestial body can repulse a filament of positive ions for millions of kilometres or even for lightyears (e.g. in a jet).
The magnetic force has only finite radius because the lengths of the attracted or repulsed dipoles are finite. The radius of the magnetic field is not mainly longer than the length of its dipole-source.
The Sun emits particles up to 99.99% light velocity, therefore, all explanations via moving magnetic fields are impossible. (In the last years such high velocities were named: non-thermal velocities.) A supposed "magnetic acceleration" should be based on a dipole moving with at least 50% of the light velocity - which is impossible due to the big masses of the supposed magnetic solar dipole.
Moreover, the electric cause of these magnetic fields was not clear in astrophysics. These magnetic fields cannot be the cause of any outwards motion of solar matter due to the Lorenz-force which is zero in this direction.
Only the electric force remains to explain the ejection and the filament-form of the solar matter like the solar wind, coronal mass ejections and flares. We can see - and astrophysics should see -that the numerous solar magnetic fields can only be the results of the solar electric charge in motion. Magnetic charges do not exist, therefore, an electric field should be found behind all magnetic fields. Oppositely, a magnetic field is not necessary for the existing of an electric field. An e.g. negative Earth is perfectly insulated in vacuum and can repulse the negative filaments of the solar wind for weeks without any new charge of this "spherical condenser" Earth.
THE HUNTED MAGNETIC SOLAR DYNAMO
Only the solar gravity was completely understood by the astrophysics of the last centuries (since Newton, since 1666). A fine adjustment was given by relativity in the first decades of the last century. However astrophysics had great problems to explain matter which was ejected by the Sun. The magnetic force was used without success in hundreds of models. Some of them are as follows:
the existence of the solar wind (the surface should be 24MK hot to emit this wind thermally into the magnetic tubes),
the million Kelvin hot corona which does not radiate heat and cannot be heated by the solar surface of only 6000K,
the quick release and the almost light-velocity of the proton-flares,
the ejected solar masses which never return
many other old observations as the solar cycle and change of the solar poloid field
the strongest magnetic field of the sunspots is never source of a filament or eruption.
All these and many other observations persistently remained unexplained. Many solar processes were sophistically and symbolically explained by magnetic fields of mysterious origin. Prof. K. R. Lang hoped in1995 that SOHO will find the solar dynamo:
"...one of the principal motivations for helioseismological studies has been a desire to constrain theories for the solar dynamo that produces the magnetic cycle of the solar activity..."
Lang wrote disappointed in 1996 when SOHO did not find the solar dynamo:
"Our new views... have raised many questions. They include... a crisis in the dynamo theory...the unknown mechanisms that heat the million degree corona and accelerate the solar wind."
22 problems of astrophysics of the last century can be found under the collection of cited
However, all these problems probably have a common cause: the Sun was seen as an electrically neutral body. It is high time to test whether the Sun has an important electric function, too. This electric function seems to have a strong influence on our climate (electric climate) and, therefore, it has an enormous importance for mankind. A thought experiment should show this:
CAN GRAVITY AND THE ELECTRIC CHARGE SCREENED?
What happens if a small body falls into the Sun? Such a body could be a small star e.g. a "white dwarf". These can have more mass than the Sun (by 40%). Let us think that this small star has the mass equal to that of the Sun. The result can be that the solar core will have in its centre a hard and heavy component, much denser than the very dense solar core.
Nobody thinks that the white dwarf- as big as the Earth - could not attract all planets through the 700000km thick solar body which has its own big mass. It is quite clear, that the double of the new solar mass would produce a double of attraction by the higher gravity and our Earth would approach the new Sun in a spiral as long as its centrifugal force will not be double than now. (In the reality, the Sun could not survive the collision with a white dwarf. Fortunately it is only a thought experiment.)
However, very probably, a white dwarf is positively charged because it has a strong magnetic field up to 1000 Tesla - which could be the result of the quickly rotated electric charge. Is the positive charge of this thought central white dwarf detectable at Earth similar to the thought double strength of gravity in the case above? Would the electrons of the solar wind attracted by this positive charge which is in the centre of the Sun? The probable answer is: no, a positive charge in the depth of the Sun could not be detected at Earth. The solar plasma is not transparent for photons which are the carriers of the positive electric field. This field starts at the positive surface of the white dwarf. Many observations show that gravity can pervade plasma but the electric force cannot pervade plasma.
Already 0.01 gram of protons in excess would explode the Sun if the electrostatic repulsion could pervade the solar plasma! But the Sun is still there. Either, the Sun is totally balanced in its electric charges. It should have neither positive nor negative overbalance even not in milligram-range for the positive charge or microgram-range in electrons. The other possibility is that it is not sensitive if its electric charges are unbalanced. But the Sun cannot be balanced! Already before it was born, the mother-cloud was bombarded by the cosmic rays giving positive charge to it. Also young stars in the proximity emitted X-rays which ionized hydrogen and helium of the mother cloud i.e. many electrons could not return after their emission by these photons. However, positive masses of billion tons are emitted in coronal mass ejections daily and not milligrams.
GRAVITY AND ELECTRICITY
There are many differences between the two forces of infinite radius. The problems of the astrophysics of the last century have their origin in the fact that these differences were neglected. Moreover, the electric force of infinite radius was looked at as having short radius acting only in atoms. Positively charged atoms existed, but positively charged stars should not exist. Following table shows the two forces of infinite radius.
IDENTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FORCES OF INFINITE RADIUS:
|Maximal velocity:||300 000 km/s||300 000 km/s|
|Proportional to "charges"?||yes (M x m)||yes (C x c)|
|Law of distance:||R -2||R -2|
|Can act in empty space?||yes||yes|
DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS OF FORCES OF INFINITE RADIUS:
|Can escape from black hole?||Yes||no|
|Secondary force||No||yes (magnetic force)|
|Velocity < 300 000 km/s?||No||yes|
|Can pervade plasma?||Yes||no (21 th century)|
|Number of "charges"?||one||two (+ and -)|
|Zero force of a body?||impossible||possible (if neutral)|
|Force typically produces:||stars - galaxies||filaments, jets|
|Force typically forms:||Ellipsoid||cylinder|
|Color of these bodies:||infrared up to blue||X- and gamma-ray|
|Produced bodies are in||concentration||expansion|
|State of matter of bodies:||thermal||non-thermal|
|( solid , fluid, gas, plasma)||( filament )|
|Force between 2 protons:||1 unit||10 36 units|
|( very weak attraction)||( very strong rep.)|
|Force is important in atom:||no||yes|
|Space is deformed by it:||yes||no|
As we see the two forces of infinite radius are in their many characteristics different. Therefore, it is possible that the Sun exactly shows us the mass of its core but keeps in secret the positive charge of its core.
Lang, K.R. (1995) The Sun... Springer p.73
Lang, K.R. (1996) Unsolved mysteries of the Sun. S&T p.39
Körtvélyessy, L. (1998) The Electric Universe EFO Budapest 704p